Miserable Bodyfat: Look to Your Proteins

Prevalent articles often judge nutritional proteins by matching their capability to support muscle protein synthesis. This one-eyed focus leads several people to trust that proteins are simple foods, and building muscle is their greatest important, if not their individual, function. This belief is totally untrue.

The amino acids that make up proteins have remained growing on Earth for more than two million decades, and are far and away the highest complicated meals we eat (1). Twenty-first century, molecular biology reveals that we still have a lot to understand about them. Some university texts still state, for example, that only eight of the 21 amino acids in individual proteins are important. In the last few decades of knowledge that amount has expanded to 17, although some oxymoronic person still contact the nine new ones “conditionally essential” (2,3).

We must realize long ago how complex proteins are from how multifaceted we are. Experts have recognized for an extended time that partial the dry weight of the human body is proteins, more than 100 thousand different proteins (4). Each one is created to accurate qualifications from our genetic code. They do more than a million different tasks every day. Each one is reduced from the amino acids in the proteins that you eat.

Titin, for example is our lengthiest protein. It enables muscles to contract properly. Titin is 34,500 amino acids long, all in accurate series. If even one amino acid is missing, or in the wrong place in the series, titin does not perform effectively, and muscular contraction does not work effectively. If you can’t gain muscle and strength the way you should, check the quality of your dietary proteins. Even the hemoglobin that provides your fresh air is a protein.  If you are panting like a grampus trying to train for that marathon, check the excellent of your dietary proteins.

Proteins form your entire framework and control every move you make. The framework of your sight and mind is mainly proteins. The brain activity and the vision you are using right now to read this page is accurately managed by thousands of different enzymes–and all enzymes are proteins. If you are having problems following this, check the quality of your dietary proteins.

The big point is that the value of the proteins you eat determines the quality of the proteins that compose your body. If you eat rubbish proteins you will develop a rubbish body, because you are unable to give your genome the development materials it needs to communicate its power. Before you bite into that delicious chilidog, remember that its substandard protein will become your muscles, body parts, and brain and you will have to live with it for the next six months.

If you eat chicken wings you will develop a chubby chicken wings system, regardless of what else you do for your health.  If you eat hamburgers, you will develop a swollen hamburger system. You see them all waddling down the shopping center. That guy is definitely a Burger Master, and there go a couple of Taco Alarms and a Lasagna Hut… You get the image. You will develop a framework with appearance, activity, and mind that represent the quality of the nutritional protein from which they are designed.

The best dietary match we have found for human proteins is undenatured whey protein concentrate. If anyone has a better match, with controlled scientific evidence to prove it, I would love to learn of it. Undenatured whey protein from range-fed cows is not a simple food. It consists of eight different proteins, each composed of 21 amino acids, each with different effects on the human body.

Like range-fed meat and outrageous fish, but better, undenatured pure whey protein contain the right blends of the amino acids for human protein, complete with numerous proteins secured into protein series (“keys” that open gene concept hair in our DNA code) and secured bioactive defense aspects too (5). Only complete protein work effectively. Any way we meddle with them with our simian hands, we clutter them up.

When we leave them complete, these complex proteins influence many more bodily processes than muscle growth.  They regulate glucose metabolic rate, fat metabolic rate, bone metabolic rate, hypertension level, compound operate, immune operate, thinking processes, consciousness, emotions, sleep, appetite, diet, and weight (6). They are an advantage to health.

I will take a quick run through a few analysis documents associate of the analysis on obese, the toughest health in the United States, triggered mainly by our simian hands screwing out with the food. The body system was not designed to be obese. Our DNA value cannot manage it. The unique circumstances of obese in The united states, especially in children, forecasts a tsunami of disease in which mother and father who stay fit and decrease will live longer than their young (7).

Simply owning excess body fat causes multiple conditions of insulin, glucose, fats, hypertension level, heart operate, pancreatic operate, renal and liver operate, thinking processes, and emotions (8-10). These conditions work together to make you constantly sick, exhausted, and miserable.

We have so messed up the food chain that people fighting to lose bodyfat need any help they can get. I am happy to be able to share some of the recent findings on whey protein focus, conclusions of its benefits for hunger, food intake, blood insulin and glucose levels, blood lipids, feelings and knowledge.

Nutrient for calorie, whey protein raises satiety (appetite satisfaction) more than any fat or carbohydrate (8-10). Whey also has a larger influence than any other protein on amino acid levels and patterns in the brain. These changes in the brain induce satiety and result in reduced food intake (8-10). Whey protein concentrate also increases brain levels of amino acids that regulate areas of the hypothalamus to reduce food cravings (8-10). Whey reduces diet in human topics to a greater extent than casein, egg, or soy (9-11).

You digest whey proteins more rapidly than casein, egg, meat, fish, or vegetable proteins. This effect potentiates blood insulin release, increases glucose usage by tissues, and reduces blood sugar levels more than other proteins (11,12).

Big bonus: whey protein raises brain serotonin levels and improves feelings, at least as well as some anti-depressants, and with zero adverse reactions (13).  It also increases knowledge (14). Getting your proteins from undenatured whey can make you thinner, more happy, and more intelligent.

For more details about this subject and other wellness and success relevant subjects use the use the following websites:

www.facebook.com/health2money

www.isafun.com

www.health2money.com

www.weightlossbydetox.com

References

  1.  Chernikova D, Motamedi S, Csürös M, Koonin EV, Rogozin IB. A late origin of the extant eukaryotic diversity: divergence time estimates using rare genomic changes. Biol Direct. 2011 May 19;6:26.
  2. Fürst P, Stehle P. What are the essential elements needed for the determination of amino acid requirements in humans? Journal of Nutrition, 2004;134 (6 Suppl):1558S–1565S.
  3. Reeds PJ. Dispensable and indispensable amino acids for humans. J Nutr. 2000;130 (7):1835S–40S
  4. Colgan M. Optimum Sports Nutrition. New York: Advanced Science Press 1993.
  5. Colgan M. The Anti-Inflammatory Athlete. Vancouver: Science Books, 2012.
  6. Graf S, Egert S, Heer M. Effects of whey protein supplements on metabolism: evidence from human intervention studies. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011 Nov;14(6):569-80.
  7. Moore SE, Anderson GH. Dietary proteins in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans. J Nutr 2004;134:974S–9S.
  8. Bremer AA, Mietus-Snyder M, Lustig RH. Toward a unifying hypothesis of metabolic syndrome. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129(3):557-70.
  9. Luhovyy BL, Akhavan T, Anderson GH.  Whey proteins in the regulation of food intake and satiety. J Am Coll Nutr 2007;26:704S–12S.
  10. Corredig M, (ed). Dairy-derived ingredients: food and nutraceutical uses. London, United Kingdom: Woodhead Publishing, 2009.
  11. Hall WL, Millward DJ, Long SJ, Morgan LM. Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite. Br J Nutr 2003;89:239–48.
  12. Claessens M, Saris WH, van Baak MA. Glucagon and insulin responses after ingestion of different amounts of intact and hydrolysed proteins. Br J Nutr 2008;100:61–9.
  13. Markus CR, Olivier B, Panhuysen GE, Van Der Gugten J, Alles MS, Tuiten A, Westenberg HG, Fekkes D, Koppeschaar HF, de Haan EE. The bovine protein alpha-lactalbumin increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids, and in vulnerable subjects raises brain serotonin activity, reduces cortisol concentration, and improves mood under stress. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun;71(6):1536-44.
  14. Markus CR, Olivier B, de Haan EH. Whey protein rich in alpha-lactalbumin increases the ratio of plasma tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids and improves cognitive performance in stress-vulnerable subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jun;75(6):1051-6.

Which Form of Vitamin D Is Best?

Vitamin D3 is more potent than D2, according to a meta-analysis.

By now you may have learned what vitamin D can do for your bones, muscle, your heart, and even your telomeres (those protective caps on chromosomes), but are you getting the right amount in the right form to boost levels optimally?

Vitamin D is perhaps the most unique and certainly the most broadly influential “vitamin” in our diet. Given the scope of its action it may be no surprise this vitamin is not a vitamin at all, but works more like a hormone. Supplement users are acquainted with vitamin D in two forms: vitamin D2, available in plants and fortified foods, and vitamin D3, the natural form produced in the partnership between skin and sunshine and also found in some animal foods like egg yolks and oily fish.

Which one are you getting? Does it matter? Because of mixed data on potency, the scientific community has long been at odds regarding which form is best to bring levels in the blood stream up to optimal status; and finally an answer has been unveiled. For the first time, a systematic review and meta-analysis including 17 studies comparing the use of vitamin D2 to D3 suggest that D3 is the one most effective at raising blood levels of the vital-for-health vitamin.

Published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, most of the evidence deems D3 as superior to D2. “Our results suggest a favoring toward cholecalciferol [D3] rather than ergocalciferol [D2] supplementation with respect to the more effective improvement of vitamin D status,” wrote the researchers.

Why is there a discrepancy between the forms? They both, after all, contribute to active circulating levels of vitamin D. Researchers believe the answer to this question is becoming clearer. Both types must undergo a series of conversions in the body to become “active.”  Becoming calcitriol, the active form, involves the liver and the kidney, some chemical reactions, and a bit of structural manipulation before it can exert a benefit on nearly every cell in the body. Put simply, vitamin D2 is not as easily converted to calcitriol as vitamin D3. Higher rates of conversion not only mean it is more effective, it also has implications for how long this hormone will be around to confer benefits. Given the information currently available, vitamin D3 seems to be the best bang for your buck when it comes to supplementation.

With the majority of people vitamin D deficient, the need for supplementation is vast. Though our bodies do make vitamin D from sun exposure, the amount of sunshine in northern countries is not sufficient, especially during the winter months, for the body to produce enough vitamin D. This makes it absolutely necessary to get adequate vitamin D from foods naturally rich in vitamin D, fortified foods, and dietary supplements.

Even in the summer months, as people actively try to avoid excessive UV exposure and take protective measures, which should absolutely be taken to avoid sunburn and higher risk of skin cancer, vitamin D status may still be in peril. This research emphasizes that there’s no need to change your defense against too much sun, even for the sake of vitamin D. High-quality dietary supplement such as Ageless Actives  are available and offer more than two times the recommended daily value of vitamin D3.

Stay on top of your sun protection and take comfort in knowing that you don’t have to compromise your skin for your nutrition—when it comes to this hormone, the best defense against deficiency or low status may be offensive supplementation with D3.

 

Reference:  Tripkovic L, Lambert H, Hart K et al. Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2012. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.031070

 

Spring Cleanse Your Way to Swimsuit Season and Better Health

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Want a jumpstart to wellness before bikini season? A spring “cleanse” helps in five ways

It’s that time of year where many people are sprucing up their home or wardrobe, but it’s also the perfect time to spruce up your health and body by cleansing with Isagenix. More than just a way to get your body toned for swimsuit season, cleansing with Isagenix offers a surefire way to recharge, gain energy, and improve your overall health.

Depending on the type of Isagenix system you’re embarking on, Cleanse Days will involve one or two days a week, or every other week, where you’ll abstain from food and in its place will be the drink Cleanse for Life, plenty of purified water, and other little nutrient-packed “tools” to get you through.

Ask anyone who’s lost weight on Isagenix and they will surely tell you that these Cleanse Days are what gave them the “jump start” to results and benefits that are seen from the overall system. It’s not just other people too—as with anything else made by Isagenix—Cleanse Days encompass the benefits seen in well-designed, published studies. Here are five reasons why Cleanse Days will bring you results:

  1. “Jump Starts” Fat Burning: The reduction of calories on Cleanse Days stimulates the body’s fat burning furnaces by increasing human growth hormone while suppressing proteins responsible for fat synthesis and storage. Notably, the surge in human growth hormone also helps protect against muscle breakdown as long as followed with intake of quality protein (as on Shake Days).
  2. Triggers Detoxification: The abstinence of food on Cleanse Days gives the digestion processes a break, allowing the liver to kick into detox high gear. Also, with the reduction of fat deposits on Cleanse Days comes the release of stored fat-soluble toxins. By drinking Cleanse for Life on Cleanse Days, this helps encourage even deeper detoxification. Cleanse for Life provides several significant advantages over traditional fasting: The drink contains B vitamins, which are depleted during normal fasting. These vitamins are essential for normal body metabolism and energy production. It also contains bioactive herbal ingredients demonstrated to stimulate antioxidative and detoxification enzyme pathways including glutathione transferases, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. And, finally, Cleanse for Life contains potent antioxidative complexes that directly contribute to the body’s antioxidant defense system.
  3. Improves Insulin Sensitivity: A review of animal and human studies involving intermittent or alternate-day fasting, or abstaining from food for one or two days in between normal calorie consumption days, found that fasting resets cellular sensitivity to glucose and insulin (1). This in itself can bring better health—allowing the body to better control blood sugar. The opposite of being insulin sensitive is insulin resistant, which is related to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recently, research has shown that periodic intermittent fasting was associated with reduced risk in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (2).
  4. Reduces oxidative stress and inflammation: As fat cells shrink, they release fewer pro-inflammatory cytokines (signaling molecules) that cause oxidative stress and inflammation. Less total body fat also helps improve antioxidant status in the body. The end result is improved health overall and lower risk of chronic disease. Oxidative stress, in particular, plays a heavy toll on telomeres (related to aging). The lower the oxidative stress, the better for healthy aging.
  5. Activates Your “Longevity Genes”: Studies in animals suggest that intermittent fasting on Cleanse Days can activate genetic expression of SIRT1, dubbed the “longevity gene” (3). The scientific interest in sirtuins, the family of proteins that SIRT1 is a part of, has grown since the early 2000s because of findings that stimulation of them—via calorie restriction, intermittent fasting, and compounds such as resveratrol—may slow aging and increase lifespan.

So what the about other parts of the Cleansing and Fat Burning System that are so great? For one, Shake Days on an Isagenix system can also be considered “calorie restricted” days. Two meals replaced with an IsaLean Shake and one 400- to 600-calorie well-balanced meal will most likely equate to consuming fewer calories than normal. If followed consistently, this in itself can lead to weight loss. On top of weight loss, calorie restriction has shown in both animal and human studies to elongate life and protect against chronic disease (1).

What’s more, the biggest component of an Isagenix system is IsaLean Shake, a nutrient-dense meal that feeds the body whey protein, which has consistently shown in studies to be the top choice (compared to other sources of protein like soy) for:

  • Reducing muscle loss, which is usually associated with most weight-loss plans (4;6)
  • Reducing total body fat and visceral fat by increasing fat burning (oxidation) (5;6)
  • Increasing thermogenesis, which increases the amount of calories burned (5)

On top of this, Isagenix systems promote the regular use of Ionix Supreme, an adaptogen-rich tonic that helps reduce the stress associated with weight loss and helps with the “feel good” effects of the program.

The beauty of a Cleansing and Fat Burning System from Isagenix lies in the combination of its individual parts. Not a system that involves restricting yourself to drinking plain juices, or worse yet, taking laxatives, Isagenix offers a lifestyle plan that supports weight and fat loss, will get you into swimsuit-shape, and supports muscle maintenance, supreme nutrition, and maximum detoxification.

For more information about this topic and other health and wealth related topics use the following websites:

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www.facebook.com/health2money

www.isafun.com

www.billionsisagenix.com

www.health2money.com

www.weightlossbydetox.com

References:

1. Varady KA, Hellerstein MK. Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention: a review of human and animal trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86-13.

2. Horne BD, et al. Usefulness of routine periodic fasting to lower risk of coronary artery disease among patients undergoing coronary angiography. Am J Cardiol 2008.2008 Oct 1;102(7):814-81.

3. Walker AK, et al. Conserved role of SIRT1 orthologs in fasting-dependent inhibition of the lipid/cholesterol regulator SREBP. Genes Dev 2010;24:1403-17.

4. Baer DJ, Stote KS, Paul DR, et al. Whey Protein but Not Soy Protein Supplementation Alters Body Weight and Composition in Free-Living Overweight and Obese Adults. J Nutr July 2011, 141.

5. Acheson KJ. Protein choices targeting thermogenesis and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 93: 525-34

6. Josse AR, Atkinson SA, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM. Increased Consumption of Dairy Foods and Protein during Diet- and Exercise-Induced Weight Loss Promotes Fat Mass Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Women. J Nutr 2011;141:1626-34

6. Yang Y, Breen L, Burd NA, Hector AJ, Churchward-Venne TA, Josse AR, Tarnopolsky MA and Phillips SM. Resistance exercise enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis with graded intakes of whey protein in older men. Br J Nutr 1-9, 2012.

Interview with Dr. Phillips on Whey Vs. Soy

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Based on years of research, Dr. Phillips says whey is superior to soy for muscle in aging adults.

Skeletal muscle is the tissue of action, movement, force, and function. Unfortunately, time takes a toll on bodies and on muscle mass. The combination of perceived energy decline, decreased physical activity, and a blunted response for muscle growth (“anabolic resistance”) forms the association between aging and a loss in muscle mass.

Sustaining this important tissue is a battle that Stuart Phillips, PhD, FACN, FACSM, professor at McMaster University in Ontario, Canada, has dedicated his career and his research to explore. On April 25, Dr. Phillips presented a comprehensive review of the research on dietary protein and aging at Experimental Biology 2012, in San Diego. The conference is an annual event where six scientific societies hold their joint scientific sessions and yearly meetings.

Deeming whey as the frontrunner in the race for the optimal protein supplement for aging adults, Dr. Philips explained that whey’s muscle-retaining benefits are clearly beyond those offered by soy (and other protein sources). Whey protein, he said, is uniquely superior for muscle stimulus and retention. Concluding his inquiry into protein for healthy aging, Dr. Philips explains that protein quality, quantity, and timing act synergistically to aid in the pursuit for long-term quality of life.

Isagenix caught up with Dr. Phillips at the event and afterward to gain more insight from his research. Taking a few moments to share the fruits of his pursuits, Dr. Philips tips his hat to whey protein:

Isagenix: What first interested you in studying the effects of protein on muscle?

Dr. Phillips: I was an athlete all my life playing hockey, football, rugby, and enjoying everything from swimming to triathlons. So muscle has always been near and dear to my heart (no pun) and my passion. I don’t compete in sports much anymore except with my wife and my three boys (13, 10, and 7), who are my stiffest competition yet! So now it’s about staying healthy, active, and maintaining my muscle mass, strength, and health. High-quality protein is a big part of that.

Isagenix: Can you explain anabolic resistance in aging? How does it relate to sarcopenia?

Dr. Phillips: Anabolic resistance is, as we define it, the inability of skeletal muscle in aged persons to mount a full protein synthetic response similar to that seen in the young. In other words, older people just don’t put the protein they eat into their muscles as efficiently as young people. That means as we age  our muscles gradually begin to make less protein so our muscle mass declines, otherwise called sarcopenia.

Isagenix: Based on your research, how does whey compare to other proteins like soy for building muscle?

Dr. Phillips: Soy is an excellent high quality protein as its PDCAAS (protein-digestibility corrected amino acid score) would suggest. In fact, if you use the PDCAAS scoring system the way it’s used now, then isolated soy is the ‘same’ as whey and casein. In reality, however, whey is a superior protein for repairing and gaining muscle, which is something we’ve shown in several studies now (1-4). In fact, milk proteins in general are better than soy for promoting lean mass, or muscle, gain (2; 3).

Isagenix: Why does the evidence suggest whey protein is superior to soy (or other proteins) in aging adults for promoting muscle gains or holding on to muscle?

Dr. Phillips: Our work, and that of other research groups also, suggests that it’s the high leucine content of whey protein, which is an amino acid highly stimulatory for muscle protein synthesis and muscle growth. That along with all of the other ‘essential’ (i.e., we need to eat them because we cannot make them ourselves) amino acids are present in just the right quantities to support an optimal rate of protein accretion.
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Dr. Phillips discusses superiority of whey protein for muscle as we age.

Isagenix: How do higher doses of whey protein help overcome anabolic resistance in aging to slow/reverse sarcopenia?

Dr. Phillips: We’re not entirely sure, but we’re proposing that as people age their muscles become desensitized to the effects of the amino acid leucine. However, if you consume higher quantities of protein or you consume proteins higher in leucine like whey, then you ‘overcome’ (or at least minimize) the anabolic resistance of aging and slow sarcopenia. I’d never say you could reverse sarcopenia, but good food choices and good high-quality proteins, along with physical activity, are a big part of slowing it down.

Isagenix: Why is it important to distribute large doses of protein throughout the day?

Dr. Phillips: We’ve conducted two dose-response studies in young men after resistance exercise (5), and recently in older men with their muscles at rest and also following resistance exercise (6). The young men require 20 grams of protein to maximally stimulate new muscle protein addition to their muscles whereas the older men needed more protein, double the dose in fact, or 40 grams, to achieve a maximal stimulation. (Editor’s note: Recently, Maastricht University researchers found that 35 grams of whey protein also showed significant increases in muscle protein synthesis compared to 20 grams or 10 grams in older men. See article here.)

Thus, if we think about getting this maximal stimulation throughout the day, then what we want to have happen is that we should eat, if we’re young, 20 grams of protein per meal and 40 grams per meal if we’re older. Currently, North Americans consume protein in a very imbalanced fashion with about 6 grams coming at breakfast, 12 grams at lunch, and 60 grams at dinner; that’s not the best way to hang onto your muscle mass.

Isagenix: How does exercise play a role in helping overcome anabolic resistance?

Dr. Phillips: Exercise brings back the sensitivity that is lost as we age. In a sense, exercise, for a short-time, ‘reverses’ aging. In fact, what it really does is reverse the effects of inactivity, but oftentimes aging and inactivity are one and the same. So even aged muscle, when exercised, becomes sensitive to leucine and other amino acids again.

Isagenix: What would you suggest to older people as a way for them to help hold on to muscle with age?

Dr. Phillips: 1) Exercise and get some form of physical activity every day; 2) Consume protein at levels higher than the current RDA; 3) Consume three equal protein-containing meals throughout the day with at least 20 to 40 grams of high-quality protein; 4) it should maybe go without saying, but fruits, vegetables, and dietary fiber are also important – I like the DASH [eating plan], for example, but with more protein.
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For more information about this topic and other health and wealth related topics use the following websites:
http://www.facebook.com/health2money
http://www.isafun.com
http://www.billionsisagenix.com
http://www.health2money.com
http://www.weightlossbydetox.com

References (as supplied by Dr. Phillips)

1. Burd NA, Yang Y, Moore DR, Tang JE, Tarnopolsky MA and Phillips SM. Greater stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis with ingestion of whey protein isolate v. micellar casein at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men. Br J Nutr 1-5, 2012.

2. Hartman JW, Tang JE, Wilkinson SB, Tarnopolsky MA, Lawrence RL, Fullerton AV and Phillips SM. Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. Am J Clin Nutr 86: 373-381, 2007.

3. Josse AR, Tang JE, Tarnopolsky MA and Phillips SM. Body composition and strength changes in women with milk and resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42: 1122-1130, 2010.

4. Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW, Tarnopolsky MA and Phillips SM. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol 107: 987-992, 2009.

5. Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, Tang JE, Glover EI, Wilkinson SB, Prior T, Tarnopolsky MA and Phillips SM. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 89: 161-168, 2009.

6. Yang Y, Breen L, Burd NA, Hector AJ, Churchward-Venne TA, Josse AR, Tarnopolsky MA and Phillips SM. Resistance exercise enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis with graded intakes of whey protein in older men. Br J Nutr 1-9, 2012.